Compute site, species and biplot scores for different scalings.


scaling : int

Scaling type 1 produces a distance biplot. It focuses on the ordination of rows (sites) because their transformed distances approximate their original euclidean distances. Especially interesting when most explanatory variables are binary.

Scaling type 2 produces a correlation biplot. It focuses on the relationships among explained variables (Y). It is interpreted like scaling type 1, but taking into account that distances between objects don’t approximate their euclidean distances.

See more details about distance and correlation biplots in [R82], S 9.1.4.



Object that stores the computed eigenvalues, the proportion explained by each of them (per unit), transformed coordinates for species and sites, biplot scores, site constraints, etc.


[R82](1, 2) Legendre P. and Legendre L. 1998. Numerical Ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.